Thomas Schøtt

Title: Professor
Home institution: University of Southern Denmark

Universitetsparken 1, 6000 Kolding

+45 2670 3591; tsc@sam.sdu.dk

SDC Research field: Innovation Management
SDC research project(s): Globalization of Entrepreneurial Innovation in China and Denmark.

The project focuses on people’s entry and participation in entrepreneurial and innovative activity in new and existing enterprises, on organization of activity and enterprises, as embedded in networks around enterprises and entrepreneurs and in institutions and systems in society, and on performance outcomes, notably innovation and innovation-related exporting and expectations for job-creation and growth. – The design is multi-level, e.g. analyzing micro-level activity in macro-level contexts of culture and social institutions, and often compares China to other societies, and is often longitudinal by tracking development of innovation in China. – Data are mainly from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, GEM, which since 2001 has conducted annual surveys, now covering China and 100+ other societies, with measures of national institutional framework conditions, measures of adults’ attitudes and involvement in entrepreneurship and innovation, and measures of entrepreneurs’ and enterprises’ attributes, networking and innovation and innovation-related activities.

Project partner(s) in China:  

LI Jizhen, Associate Professor, Tsinghua University, Dept of Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Strategy.

Shayegheh Ashourizadeh, Postdoctoral Fellow, Tsinghua University, Dept of Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Strategy.

GAO Jian, Professor, Tsinghua University, Dept of Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Strategy.

WENG Yi, Associate Professor, Tsinghua University, Dept of Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Strategy.

DUAN Zhirong, Assistant Professor, Tsinghua University, Dept of Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Strategy.

LIU Chengcheng, Ph.D.student, Tsinghua University, Dept of Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Strategy.

LI Xiaohua, Ph.D.student, Tsinghua University, Dept of Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Strategy.

MU Rui, GEM project manager, Tsinghua University, Dept of Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Strategy.

CHENG Yuan, Associate Professor, Tsinghua University, Dept of Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Strategy.

GAO, Junguang, Associate Professor, Beijing Business and Technology University.

Project partner(s) in Denmark (name and institution): Kent Wickstrøm Jensen, University of Southern Denmark.

LIU Ye, Postdoc, U. of Southern Denmark, and Asso. Prof., Zhejiang University.

SDC Teaching involvement Innovation Management Programme
Overall research interests Research interest focuses on people’s entry and participation in entrepreneurial and innovative activity in new and existing enterprises, on organization of activity and enterprises, as embedded in networks around enterprises and entrepreneurs and in institutions and systems in society, and on performance outcomes, notably innovation and innovation-related exporting and expectations for job-creation and growth. – The design is multi-level, e.g. analyzing micro-level activity in macro-level contexts of culture and social institutions, and is comparative, and is often longitudinal. – Data are mainly from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, GEM, which since 2001 has conducted annual surveys, now covering 100+ societies, with measures of national institutional framework conditions, measures of adults’ attitudes and involvement in entrepreneurship and innovation, and measures of entrepreneurs’ and enterprises’ attributes, networking and innovation and innovation-related activities.
Publications LIU, Ye, Minto-Coy, I., Namatovu, R., Karadeniz, E., and Schøtt, T. Entrepreneurs’ transnational networks channeling exports: Diasporas from Central & South America, Sub-Sahara Africa, Middle East & North Africa, Asia, and European culture. In review.

Schøtt, T., K.W. Jensen, and J. LI. Coupling among export, innovation and growth ambitions: Embedded in institutions and local and transnational networks. In review.

Schøtt, T., R. Madhavan, K.W. Jensen, and J. LI. The eco-system shaping entrepreneurship and innovation: Development in India and around the World. In review.

GAO, J., T. Schøtt, and Y. LIU. Business collaboration benefiting innovation in small enterprises: China compared to Brazil, Indonesia, Nigeria and Thailand. In review.

Naitana, L., and T. Schøtt.  Gender gaps in financing start-ups: Widened by traditional culture, narrowed by institutional support? In review.

Kalhor, E., S. Ashourizadeh and T. Schøtt. A Down and up of entrepreneurship in Iran: Impacts of sanctions and of easing sanctions. In review.

LIU, Y., T. Schøtt, and C. ZHANG. Women’s experiences of legitimacy, satisfaction and commitment as entrepreneurs: Embedded in gender hierarchy and networks in private and business spheres. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development. (in press).

Schøtt, T. Entrepreneurial pursuits in the Caribbean diaspora: Networking and its mixed effects. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development (in press).

LIU, Y., and Schøtt, T. Life-satisfaction of entrepreneurs in the diaspora: Embedded in transnational networks and in international business. Diaspora Networks in International Business: Perspectives for Understanding and Managing Diaspora Resources and Business, edited by M. Elo and I. Minto-Coy. Springer International Publishing. (in press).

Kalhor, E., S. Ashourizadeh and T. Schøtt. An experiment of institutional change in the eco-system of entrepreneurship: Easing sanctions against Iran. European Journal of International Management. (in press).

Ismail, A., A. Tolba, S. Ghalwash, A. Alkhatib, E.E. Karadeniz, K. El Ouazzani, F. Boutaleb, L. Belkacem, and T. Schøtt. 2018. Inclusion in entrepreneurship, especially of women, youth and unemployed: Status and an agenda for research in the Middle East and North Africa. World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, to be printed in volume 34 in September 2018. Online at http://www.inderscience.com/info/ingeneral/forthcoming.php?jcode=wremsd

Jensen, K.W., Y. LIU, and T. Schøtt. 2017. Entrepreneurs’ innovation bringing satisfaction with job, work-family balance, and life: In China and around the World. International Journal of Innovation Studies, 1, 4, 193-206.

Vang, J., K.W. Jensen, T. Schøtt, and S. Rezaei. 2017. Innovation and networking among entrepreneurs across generations of Asian Tigers. International Journal of Foresight and Innovation Policy. 12, 4, 149-170.

Bertelsen, R.G., S. Ashourizadeh, K.W. Jensen, T. Schøtt, and Y. CHENG. 2017. Networks around entrepreneurs: Gendering in China and countries around the Persian Gulf. Gender in Management: An International Journal. 32, 4: 268-280. https://doi.org/10.1108/GM-03-2016-0030

Schøtt, T. 2017. Networks around women and men entrepreneurs in the Iranian diaspora: Dual embeddedness in Iran and in host-society. In: Iranian Entrepreneurship: Deciphering the Entrepreneurial Eco-system in Iran and in the Iranian Diaspora. Ed. S. Rezaei, L.-P. Dana and V. Ramadani. Springer Publishers, 231-247. DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-50639-5_13

Schøtt, T. (ed.). 2017. Special Issue: Youth Inclusion in Entrepreneurship in the Developing World, International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 30 (3).

Schøtt, T., M. Melesse, and M. Herrington. 2017. Editorial: Youth and entrepreneurship in the developing world. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 30(3), 281-286.

Schøtt, T. 2017. Immigrant and indigenous youth in Europe: Entrepreneurial intention building on human, financial and social capital. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 30(3), 374-394.

ZHANG, C., and T. Schøtt. 2017. Young employees’ job-autonomy promoting intention to become entrepreneur: Embedded in gender and traditional versus modern culture. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 30(3), 357-373.

Jensen, K.W., and T. Schøtt. 2017. Components of the network around an actor. (expanded revision of article from 2014).  Encyclopedia of Social Network Analysis and Mining, Vol 1, 2nd ed, ed. by Reda Alhajj and Jon Rokne. New York: Springer Science and Business Media. doi:10.1007/978-1-4614-7163-9_366-1

Schøtt, T., and K.W. Jensen. 2016. Firms’ innovation benefiting from networking and institutional support: A global analysis of national and firm effects. Research Policy, 45, 1233-1246. DOI 10.1016/j.respol.2016.03.006

Schøtt, T. 2016. Entrepreneurs’ satisfaction with job and life in the Sub-Sahara African diaspora: Dual embeddedness in home-society and host-society. FUTA Journal of Management and Technology, Maiden edition, 1, 1, 75-83.

Jensen, K.W., S. Rezaei and T. Schøtt. 2015. Entrepreneurs in China and the Chinese diaspora, In: Entrepreneur and Talent Management from a Global Perspective: Chinese Returnees, ed Huiyao Wang & Yipeng Liu. E. Elgar Publisher. Pages 62-91.

LI Jizhen, CHEN Zhijun and T. Schøtt. 2015. Innovation benefitting exporting: Benefit enhanced by transnational networking. International Journal of Business and Globalisation. 16, 3:245-263.

Ashourizadeh, S., S.Rezaei, T.Schøtt, and K.W.Jensen. 2015. People’s human and social capital benefiting careers in entrepreneurship: Adults in China and in the Chinese diaspora. International Journal of Business and Globalisation. 16, 3:378-400.

Ashourizadeh, S., T. Schøtt, Ece Pişkinsüt Şengüler and WANG Yi. 2015. Exporting by migrants and indigenous entrepreneurs: Contingent on gender and education. International Journal of Business and Globalisation. 16, 3:264-283.

Cheraghi, M., and T. Schøtt. 2015. Conceived globals: Entrepreneurs’ transnational networking, across phases and embedded in culture. International Journal of Business and Globalisation. 16, 3:209-227.

Ashourizadeh, S., and T. Schøtt. 2015. Exporting embedded in entrepreneurs’ transnational networks. International Journal of Business and Globalisation, 16, 3:314-334.

Jensen, K.W., S.Rezaei, T.Schøtt, S.Ashourizadeh, & LI Jizhen. 2015. Chinese entrepreneurs’ human and social capital benefiting innovation: In China and Chinese diaspora. International Journal of Business and Globalisation. 16, 3:350-377.

Jensen, K.W., and T. Schøtt. 2015. Start-up firms’ networks for innovation and export: Facilitated and constrained by entrepreneurs’ networking in private and public spheres.  Journal of Social Network Analysis and Mining , Vol. 5, Issue 1, Article 48, pp. 1-17. DOI 10.1007/s13278-015-0287-8

Schøtt, T., and M. Cheraghi. 2015. Gendering pursuits of innovation: Embeddedness in networks and culture. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 24, 1:83-116.

Schøtt, T., and M. Sedaghat. 2014. Innovation embedded in entrepreneurs’ networks and national educational systems: A global study. Small Business Economics, 43, 2: 463-476. DOI: 10.1007/s11187-014-9546-8

Levie, J., D. Kelley, A. Coduras, T. Schøtt. 2014. The effect of training in starting a business on subsequent entrepreneurial awareness, attitudes, intention and activity: A 37 nation study. International Review of Entrepreneurship. Vol 12, No. 3, pp.

KHUN-Pearce, K., S. Rezaei, and T. Schøtt. 2014. Editorial. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 23,1/2, pp.

Ashourizadeh, S., N. Nasiri and T. Schøtt. 2014. Entrepreneurial intention benefitting from education, training and competence: Egypt and Iran. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 23,1/2:94-109. DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2014.06530

Mehrizi, M.M., and T.Schøtt. 2014. Education coupled with international networking: Benefits for exporting in Middle East and North Africa. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 23, 1/2:110-126. DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2014.065311

Hovne, Adam S., Ben S. Hovne and T. Schøtt. 2014. Entrepreneurs’ innovation benefitting from their education and training and from national policy and culture: A global study. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 23,1/2:127-144. DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2014.065312

Schøtt, T., M. Cheraghi, S. Rezaei, and J. Vang. 2014. Innovation embedded in entrepreneurs’ networks in private and public spheres: A global study focusing on China and Denmark. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 23, 1/2: 145-167. DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2014.065302

Bayat, M., T. Schøtt and M.R. Zali. 2014. Firms’ collaboration networks benefitting innovation: Embeddedness in high-trust and low-trust culture, Denmark and Iran. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 23, 1/2:168-190. DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2014.065313

Cheraghi, M., Z. Setti, and T. Schøtt. 2014. Growth-expectations among women entrepreneurs: Embedded in networks and culture in Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia and in Belgium and France. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 23, 1/2:191-212. DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2014.065308

Ashourizadeh, S., Z. H. Chavoushi and T. Schøtt. 2014. People’s confidence in innovation: A component of the entrepreneurial mindset, embedded in gender and culture, affecting entrepreneurial intention. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 23, 1/2:235-251 (2014). DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2014.065310

Klyver, K., M.S. Nielsen, M.T. Schenkel and T. Schøtt. 2014. How instrumental and emotional support from family differs between vocational decisions to become self-employed or employed. Journal of Business and Entrepreneurship, 25, 2: 53-74.

Jensen, K.W., and Schøtt, T. 2014. Firms’ innovation embedded in their networks of collaboration: China compared to the World. Journal of Chinese Economic and Business Studies,12,3:273-292. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14765284.2014.931427

Ashourizadeh, S., S. Rezaei, T. Schøtt and J. Vang. 2014. Entrepreneurs’ human and social capital: Direct and reinforcing benefits for their exporting. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 21, 2: 246-267. 

Non-academic research partners CHEN Zhijun, Vice Director of Division of Industrial Clusters, Torch High Technology Industry Development Center at Ministry of Science and Technology.
Scheduled activities: The schedule for 2018 is to complete and submit, to international journals, most of these manuscripts:

Jensen, K.W., T. Schøtt, and J. LI. Chinese firms’ specialization benefiting process- and product-innovation: Promoted by elaborated business environments in the provinces. Presented at ISMOT conference at Zhejiang University; won Best Paper Award.

Jensen, K.W., and Schøtt, T., Self-determination theory and individual subjective well-being of entrepreneurs: A cross-national test of cultural relativism.

Jensen, K.W., Schøtt, T., Vang, J., and Ashourizadeh, S. Networks around immigrant and native entrepreneurs: Embeddedness in private and public spheres and in modes of incorporation.

LIU, Y., and T. Schøtt. Entrepreneurial competencies of young people: Shaped by their education and training and by entrepreneurialness of national higher education systems.

LIU, Y., and T. Schøtt. Gendering of high-tech entrepreneurship: Embedded in institutions and shaping networks and life-satisfaction.+

LI, X., J. LI, and T. Schøtt. Complementarity in the network around an entrepreneur: effects on outcomes.

Schøtt, T., R. MU, J. GAO, and J. LI. Regional development of entrepreneurship in China: Marketization processes in the provinces.

Naitana, L., and T. Schøtt. Gender gaps in financing new businesses: Widened by traditional culture, narrowed by institutional support?

LIU, Y., Elo, M., Ashourizadeh, S., Jensen, K.W., and Schøtt, T. Diasporans’ satisfaction with job, work-family balance, and life: Entrepreneurs and employees.

WANG, D., and T. Schøtt. Co-creation of innovation and financing: Embedded in networks including researchers and investors.

Jensen, K.W., and T. Schøtt. Informal institutions moderating effects of domestic and international networks upon exports: Individualism and support for networking.

During May and June 2018, Thomas is in China, at Tsinghua to collaborate on a paper and at the 12th China Goes Global Conference in Shanghai to present two papers:

Schøtt, T., and LIU, Y. 2018. Entrepreneurial pursuits in the Chinese diaspora: Compared to Europeans.

LIU, Y., and Schøtt, T. 2018. Talented women entrepreneurs: Education affecting entrepreneurial entry in China and Middle East & North Africa.

During 2018, Thomas is also collaborating on several papers for international journals with Ye LIU, at University of Southern Denmark, on a postdoc supported by SDC.